risk assessment OHS training


In the organization, authorized health and safety officers usually have to carry out risk assessments. however, as a security guard, you are closely linked with workplace safety, so, understanding the risk assessment process you can provide a detailed contribution to the risk assessment officer or you can assess the risk of every hazard that has been presented on your site.

Steps of a risk assessment

There are 2 primary methods of risk assessment, and the description of each refers to the method of evaluating the risk. They are

(a) Quantitative: The likelihood and impact of a risk occurring are calculated using statistical data and historical records. The main feature of quantitative data is that it numerical

(b) Qualitative: The likelihood and impact of a risk occurring are described using a defined scale of measurement. E.g. the likelihood of a safety incident occurring described as “very low” is defined as 1 time per year.

The 5 steps of a risk assessment:

There are 5 steps of risk assessment methods that you should be complete in a chronicle order

  1. Identify hazards
  2. Who could be harmed, and how
  3. Evaluating risks and control measures
  4. Record and apply the recommendations
  5. Review and update if required

    Definition of the words

  •  Risk – Is the likelihood of harm, and how severe the outcome is
  • Severity – A scale used to describe the consequences of harm taking place
  • Likelihood – The probability of harm taking place
  • Risk Calculation – A formula used to evaluate risk

(Likelihood x Severity = Risk)

The complete process of conducting risk assessments could be described as a cycle, due to the continual monitoring and updating of information.

Risk assessment method


Step 1Identify the hazards;

In this process, you should list all of the hazards that identity through the process of inspection of the workplace. Here is the stander template to record enough detail.

For example;

Location Categories of Hazards Hazards
Kitchen Slip and trip Wet surface
Micro-web cable
Old socket
Collision with objects Low hanging structures
Overhead power lines
Step 2Who can be harmed;

In this process, you should assess who can come to contact with the hazards and how they can be hampered.

Hazards Who can be hampered? How
Refrigerator/old electric socket Employees Due to overheating, they can get burned when they open it
maintenance vendors May perform maintenance tasks that can be electrocuted.

In the workplace accident, the types of people may include;

  • Workers/ Employees
  • Contractors/Vendors
  • Visitors
  • Public
  • People of determination

This process of the Assessment will finish with a clear understanding of hazards and how they impact each of the people in the workplace.

Step 3Evaluate risks and control measures;

This process of the risk assessment is very important because you would guide the management or decision making people for controlling the risk. You should evaluate the risk and its outcome, one formula has developed as follows.

Likelihood x Severity = Risk Score

There are two methods you can use to evaluate the risk that has presented from the hazards;

  1. Quantitative: if there is enough numerical data to properly evaluate risk.
  2. Qualitative: if there is not enough numerical data to properly evaluate risk.

A useful tool that could help you with the risk assessment is a risk matrix. It describes likelihood and severity and provides a score to allocate to a hazard-based on the evaluated Likelihood and Severity.

Severity likelihood
Risk Score 1 2 3 4 5
1 1 2 3 4 5
2 2 4 6 8 10
3 3 6 9 12 15
4 4 8 12 16 20
5 5 10 15 20 25
Risk Scale
20-25 Very high
15-19 High
10-14 Moderate
5-9 Low
1-4 Very Low

You should identify the existing control measures of each hazard for the evaluation of the risk. The reduction of risk provided by the control measure should be taken into consideration when calculating the risk.

Key information:

One international stander risk control measure is known as a hierarchy of control that is completed in 5 steps but it is considered least effective.


Key definitions of the phrase;

  • Risk Matrix – a grid of risk scores, based on likelihood and severity of hazard causing harm

    Hierarchy of controls:

  • Eliminate – remove the hazard completely
  • Substitute – replace the source of the hazard
  • Isolate – Guard or control the hazard
  • administrate – change policy or procedures
  • PPE – Use protective safety equipment

Knowledge of the hierarchy of control you can assess the risk, identify the control measure and make a recommendation.

How Existing control Recommend
Due to overheating, they can get burned when they open it NON Replacement new or call a technician to fix it.
May perform maintenance tasks that can be electrocuted. The existing site policy to the contractors should be aware of hazards Install another power outlet for conducting the maintenance tasks.

Evaluating risk
After identifying the hazards, people affected, existing controls, and recommendations the likelihood and severity should evaluate. The most common method to evaluate risk evaluation is;

  1. Quantitative or
  2. Qualitatively,
  • Use available sources of information to make an accurate evaluation of the likelihood and severity
  • Calculate a risk score for each hazard

Risk Assessment Worksheet
risk assessment check list

Practice Activity

risk assessment activities

Step 4Record and apply recommendations:

In the process of the risk assessment, the identification of hazards and control measures only be useful when they are recorded and recommendations implemented.

It is important for the security personal to make a note although the control measures have been applied. If the hazard is not completely removed from the place and have applied the control measure. The risk can come again that is called “Residual Risk”

When you write the risk assessment report the following points should include;

  • Report Number
  • Date
  • Valid until
  • Department or work area
  • Key risks
  • Other risks & ratings
  • Relevant policies and procedures
  • Risk assessment summary
  • Record-keeping requirements

What does mean “ALARP”?

It is a concept of reducing the existing risk level As Low As Reasonably Practical (ALARP)

  • To take the option of reducing the risk level, the following three things should be reasonably practical.
      • Time
      • Money
      • Effort
  •  Reasonably means different things to different organizations. This should consider when deciding how to proceed with control measures.

After completing the risk assessment report it should be distributed to all the person who requires it. Although the security personal do not need to produce the report they may be consulted.

Risk assessment report format.

Risk assessment
Number Date —- Valid until  —-
Department / Work area
Key risks identified
Risk assessment findings Risk rating
Relevant policies & procedures
Risk assessment summary 
Created by
Step 5Review and update:

A risk assessment should be reviewed if the following things include;

  • New laws or regulations passed
  • New materials or substances in use
  • A change in work policy or procedure
  • Installation of new equipment
  • New personnel

 Risk reporting requirement

General reporting requirements According to the OHS  Systems Framework, each step of the risk assessment process should record. Any methods and sources of information must include. Ensures that legal and organizational requirements are covered and the benefits of re-using information can be achieved.

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