treatment of shock first aid training

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treatment of shock

 Shock is a dangerous disorder where the blood supply in the body is not enough. This means the vital organs can not get the oxygen and damage to the brain or heart. Treatment of shock depends on the condition of the person who has got shocking.

What are the causes of Shock?

  • Heart failure
  • Severe bleeding (internal or external)
  • Dehydration, vomiting, burns, diarrhea
  • A severe infection or allergic reactions
 What are the symptoms of a person having a shock?
  •  Pale face
  • Cold, clammy skin
  • Fast and shallow breath
  • Fast and weak pulse
  • Yawning and sighing
  • Confusion
Treatment of shock
  • Lay them down, with head low and legs raised up
  • Loosen any tight or restrictive clothing
  • Cover them with a blanket or jacket
  • Monitor breathing, pulse, and consciousness
    until medical assistance come

Wound and condition treatment

Catastrophic bleeding: If a casualty has catastrophic bleeding, must treat as a priority;

(A) Treatment of bleeding from the head, neck or throat?
  • If there is any object stuck in the wound, don’t try to remove leave it in place
  • Remove any clothing from the wound area
  • Apply a heavy bandage directly to the wound
  • Use firm direct pressure into the wound
  • If bleeding is not controlled, continue to add fresh bandages and pressure to the
    wound site
  • Secure bandages in place, and observe the wound for resumed bleeding
  • Treat the casualty for shock
  • Support the injured area
(B) Treatment of bleeding from a limb?
  • Apply a tourniquet to the limb as low as possible next to the wound site
  • Apply bandages to the wound site with firm direct pressure
  • Secure bandages in place, and observe the wound for resumed bleeding.
  • Treat the casualty for shock
  • Support the injured area
(C) Treatment of minor cuts and grazes?
  • Clean the wound underwater, or use sterile wipes
  • Pat the wound dry using a clean cloth
  • Cover the wound with a gauze dressing, and raise it to help stop the bleeding
  • Remove the gauze, and apply a clean dressing to the wound
(D) Treatment of spinal injury

The most common cause of spinal injury is extreme pressure or forces such as twisting or bending here are some actions that may occur spinal injury.

  • Falling from height
  • Diving into a shallow pool
  • Involved in a vehicle accident
  • Hit by a heavy object to the back
  • Hit in the head or face
What are the symptoms of spinal injury?
  • Pain in the neck or back
  • Twisted or abnormal shape of the spine
  • Bruising of the skin over the spine
  • Treatment for suspected spinal injuries:
  • Stop the casualty from moving
  • Immobilize the head and neck – Kneel behind the head, rest your elbows on the
    ground and support the head in alignment
    with the neck and spine
  • Reassure the casualty, and await medical assistance
(E) Treatment of Bleeding nose

If the casualty has a bleeding nose the key information you should remember are;

  • If a casualty has been hit on the head and
    blood from the nose is thin and water, this
    may indicate a skull fracture. This is very
    serious and emergency medical help should
    be called immediately.
  • When treating a bleeding nose, the priority
    should be to control the bleeding and keep the
    casualties‟ airway from becoming obstructed.
    Take the following steps to treat a bleeding
    nose:

      • Sit the casualty down, and have them lean
        forwards – this will ensure blood does‟t
        run down their throat, blocking the airway
      • Tell the casualty to breathe through their
        mouth, and pinch their nose until the
        bleeding stops
      • Tell the casualty not to speak, cough or sniff
        as this may cause clotted blood to break
        and start bleeding again

How to handle Choking casualty?

Handling the chocking case the first aider should be careful some important information as following;

  •  A choking casualty that makes NO noise, is in serious trouble.
  • If you see somebody that you think is choking, ask them. If they can speak to you, they should be able to clear their own throat by coughing. If they can‟t cough or make any noise, they will need immediate help. Ask someone else to call
    for help and then:

      • Lean the casualty forward
      • Use the heel of your hand to give 5 sharp slaps between their shoulder blades
      • Check inside the mouth for any loosened object, and ask them to remove it. If this does‟t clear the blockage.
      • Stand behind the casualty
      • Link your hands just below the bottom of their chest With your lower hand clenched in a fist, pull quickly inwards and upwards
      • Continue to cycle through slapping the back and thrusting the abdomen until the blockages are cleared. If the casualty becomes unconscious, check the airway and begin CPR;

 Casualty management and reporting;

Having provided primary care, treatment of wounds, and reassurance of a casualty, there is an opportunity to conduct a secondary survey of the casualty, and further management of the scene. It is good practice to keep notes, as this will enable you to complete an informative hand over of the casualty to medical professionals, and support the preparation of an incident report. The secondary survey will include:

  • Asking the casualty exactly what happened
  • Ask witnesses to describe the incident
  • Ask the casualty about their medical history:
      • Allergies
      • Medication
      • Previous condition
      • Last meal
 Event history – what just happened
  • Head to toe examination – checking for further injuries or symptoms
management of casualty and reporting;
  • Keep basic notes
  • Continue to monitor casualty symptoms and condition
  • Highlight any hazards present to incoming medical staff
  • Be prepared to give a summary of this information to the medical team that arrives attached scene.

An incident report will also be required by the organization to comply with documentation and reporting requirements for health and safety incidents. Key definitions
BLS – Basic Life Support
Primary Care – Airway, Breathing, Circulation, and Resuscitation
CPR – Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
AED – Automated External Defibrillator

Conclusion: As a trained first aider you may require to conduct treatment of shock along with bleeding control, cut, spinal injury and chocking, etc. Managing and reporting the casualty could be the most important part of your duty in the incident scene, because, it is crucial for BSL. In the treatment of shock, you have to arrange primary care as soon as possible.

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